martes, 1 de diciembre de 2009

EJERCICIOS PARA DOLOR DE ESPALDA

Ejercicios para dolor en la parte baja de la espalda

FUENTE: www.abdominales.es

Mejorar el dolor de espalda

Los ejercicios que estiran y fortalecen los músculos del abdomen y la columna vertebral pueden ayudar a evitar problemas de espalda. Si los músculos abdominales y de la espalda son fuertes, usted podrá mantener una buena postura y la columna vertebral en la posición correcta.

Si los músculos están tensos, tome una ducha o dese un baño con agua tibia antes de hacer los ejercicios. Hágalos sobre una alfombra o colchoneta. Use ropa suelta. No use zapatos. Si el ejercicio le produce dolor, deje de hacerlo y consulte con su profesional médico.

Estos ejercicios son simplemente sugerencias. Pídale a su profesional médico o fisioterapeuta que le ayude a desarrollar un programa de ejercicios. Consulte con su profesional médico antes de iniciar los ejercicios. Pregúntele cuántas veces por semana debe hacerlos.

Precaución: Si tiene una hernia de disco u otro problema con los discos, consulte con su profesional médico antes de hacer estos ejercicios.

Ejercicios
Estiramiento erguido del muslo: Apoye el talón de una pierna sobre una silla o banco, de alrededor de 15 pulgadas (40 cm) de altura. Mantenga la rodilla estirada. Inclínese hacia adelante, doblando las caderas hasta que sienta un estirón moderado en la parte trasera el muslo. No incline los hombros hacia adelante ni doble la cintura al hacer el ejercicio porque si no va a estirar la parte baja de la espalda. Mantenga el músculo estirado durante 15 a 30 segundos. Repita 3 veces.
Repita el mismo ejercicio de estiramiento con la otra pierna.

Gato y camello: Apóyese sobre las manos y las rodillas. Relaje el estómago y deje que la espalda forme una curva hacia abajo. Mantenga esta posición durante 5 segundos. Después arquee la espalda y manténgala en esa posición por 5 segundos. Haga 3 series de 10 repeticiones cada una.

Estiramiento de brazos y piernas: Póngase de rodillas y manos sobre el piso. Endurezca los músculos abdominales para que la espina dorsal quede rígida. Mientras mantiene los músculos abdominales endurecidos, levante un brazo y la pierna opuesta, estirándolos en direcciones opuestas. Sostenga esta posición por 5 segundos. Baje el brazo y la pierna lentamente y repita con el otro lado. Repita 10 veces por lado.

Inclinación de la pelvis: Acuéstese de espaldas con las rodillas dobladas y la planta de los pies sobre el piso. Tensione los músculos abdominales y empuje la parte baja de la espalda hacia el piso. Mantenga esta posición durante 5 segundos, después relájese. Haga 3 series de 10 repeticiones cada una.

Flexión abdominal parcial: Acuéstese de espaldas con sus rodillas dobladas y la planta de los pies sobre el piso. Tensione los músculos del estómago y presione su espalda hacia el piso. Doble el cuello de manera que la quijada le quede sobre el pecho. Con las manos estiradas frente a usted, doble la parte superior del cuerpo hacia adelante hasta que los hombros se levanten del piso. Mantenga esta posición durante 3 segundos. No detenga la respiración. Expire el aire mientras va levantando los hombros. Relájese. Repita 10 veces. Haga 3 series de 10 repeticiones cada una. Para retarse, junte las manos detrás de la cabeza y mantenga los codos hacia afuera.

Rotación del tronco inferior: Acuéstese de espaldas con las rodillas dobladas y la planta de los pies sobre el piso. Tensione los músculos abdominales y empuje la parte baja de la espalda hacia el piso. Manteniendo los hombros planos sobre el piso, haga girar las piernas suavemente, lo más que pueda, hacia un lado y después hacia el otro. Repita 10 a 20 veces.

Estiramiento piriforme: Acuéstese de espaldas con ambas rodillas flexionadas, apoye un tobillo sobre la rodilla de la pierna opuesta. Agárrese el muslo de la pierna inferior y tire, acercando la rodilla al pecho. Sentirá un estiramiento en los glúteos, posiblemente en la parte externa de la cadera de la pierna superior. Mantenga esta posición por 15 a 30 segundos. Repita 3 veces. Cambie de piernas y vuelva a repetir el estiramiento.

Dos rodillas hacia el pecho: Acuéstese de espaldas con las rodillas dobladas y la planta de los pies sobre el piso. Tensione los músculos abdominales y empuje la parte baja de la espalda hacia el piso. Hale ambas rodillas hacia el pecho. Mantenga la posición por 5 segundos y repita 10 a 20 veces.
Ejercicios que debe evitar
Le sugerimos evitar los siguientes ejercicios porque pueden forzar la parte baja de la espalda:levantar las piernas estiradas, juntas sentarse con las piernas estiradas torcer las caderas tocarse los dedos de los pies arquear la espalda hacia atrás.

Deportes y otras actividades
Además de acondicionar su espalda, debe también acondicionar todo el cuerpo. Las actividades físicas como caminar o nadar le ayudan también a fortalecer la espalda. Siempre es mejor consultar con su profesional médico antes de comenzar un programa de ejercicio riguroso. Recuerde que hay que empezar despacio. Algunos deportes pueden hacerle daño a la espalda.

Las mejores actividades para las personas con problemas de espalda son:

caminar
andar en bicicleta
nadar
participar en carreras de fondo (cross-country skiing)

Los deportes que pueden ser peligrosos para la espalda, porque producen contacto brusco, torsión, impacto súbito o tensión directa en la espalda son, entre otros:

fútbol americano
fútbol
voleibol
balónmano
levantamiento de pesas
trampolín
tobogán
andar en trineo
andar en un vehículo motorizado para la nieve
hockey sobre hielo.

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